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FOOD INGREDIENT - (Halal E-Codes)


E-Numbers represent specific food additives, used by the food industry in the manufacture of various food products. These E-Numbers have been formulated by the European Economic Community (EEC) and are universally adopted by the food industry worldwide.

The E numbering system was developed in order to keep track of massive amounts of additives available in the market and became a legal requirement on packaging in the 1980s. E stands for European and thus denotes that additives tagged with an E number has passed safety tests and has been granted use in the European Union.

In order to standardize and avoid confusion, each additive is assigned its own unique number. At a later stage, the numbering system was adapted for international use by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, hence the International Numbering System (INS) was born. INS maintains the same number for each additive but without the E. For further information on E numbers, please visit The Codex General Standard for Food Additive (GSFA).

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Categories

Food additives can be divided into several groups, although there is some overlap between them. The list below gives a brief detail on each category.

Acids
Food acids are added to make flavours "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants. Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid.

Acidity regulators
Acidity regulators are used to change or otherwise control the acidity and alkalinity of foods.

Anticaking agents
Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder flowing freely.

Antifoaming agents
Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods.

Antioxidants
Antioxidants such as vitamin C act as preservatives by inhibiting the effects of oxygen on food, and are generally beneficial to health.

Bulking agents
Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its nutritional value.


Food colouring
Colourings are added to food to replace colours lost during preparation, or to make food look more attractive.

Colour retention
In contrast to colourings, colour retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing colour.

Emulsifiers
Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion, as in mayonnaise, ice cream, and homogenised milk.

Flavours
Flavours are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, and may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially.

Flavour enhancers
Flavour enhancers enhance a food's existing flavours.

Flour treatment agents

Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its colour or its use in baking.

Humectants
Humectants prevent foods from drying out.

Preservatives
Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms.

Propellants
Propellants are pressurised gases used to expel food from its container.

Stabilizers
Stabilizers, thickeners and gelling agents, like agar or pectin (used in jam for example) give foods a firmer texture. While they are not true emulsifiers, they help to stabilize emulsions.

Sweeteners
Sweeteners are added to foods for flavouring. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy (calories) low, or because they have beneficial effects for diabetes mellitus and tooth decay.


Thickeners
Thickeners are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties

The Halal additives list has been established by The Halal Technical Committee JAKIM in 2006 and it has been improvised to match with current EU approved additives.

100-199    

food colors

200-299    

preservatives

300-399    

antioxidants, phosphates, and complexing agents

400-499    

thickeners, gelling agents, phosphates, humectants, emulsifiers

500-599    

salts and related compounds

600-699    

flavor enhancers

700-899    

not used for food additives (used for feed additives)

900-999    

surface coating agents, gases, sweeteners

1000-1399 

miscellaneous additive

1400-1499

starch derivatives

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FOOD INGREDIENT E-NUMBERS:

Additives which are of animal origin, such as Pork (Definitely Not Halal or Haram):

  • Whilst some additives with a common code such as E471, can be either of animal or plant origin and this type needs to be investigated on a case-by-case basis per product/ manufacturer.

The main additives you need to be aware of are:

  • Glycerol / Glycerin / Glycerine (E422) - haraam if obtained from pork or non-halal meat sources.
  • Emulsifiers (E470 to E483) - haraam if obtained from pork or non-halal sources.
  • Edible Bone Phosphate (E542) - haraam if obtained from pork or non-halal meat sources. 
  • E441 Gelatine : derived from the bones and/ or hides of cattle and/ or pigs.
  • E542 Edible Bone Phosphate : an extract from animal bones 
-Number

Name

Description Halal Status

E100

Curcumin/Turmeric

Color

Halal if pure grind turmeric powder or granular. Mushbooh if used as liquid, the solvents has to be Halal. Haraam if hidden ingredient is pork fat based emulsifier in dry mix.

E101

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

Color

Mushbooh / Doubtful (Haram if from pork liver & Kidney, Halal if 100% plant material)

E102

Tartrazine

Color

Halal / Allowed if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal

E104

Quinoline Yellow

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent other than water has to be Halal

E110

Sunset Yellow FCF / Orange Yellow S

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal

E120

Cochineal / Carminic Acid

Color

Doubtful (Non-Halal according to Hanafi Fiqqah / School of Thoughts)

E122

Carmoisine / Azorubine

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal

E123

Amaranth

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal

E124

Ponceau 4R / Cochineal Red A

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal

E127

Erythrosine BS

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal

E131

Patent Blue V

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal

E132

Indigo Carmine / Idigotine

Color

Halal if use as is as a 100% synthetic color  but if pork glycerin is added as a solvent then it is Haraam

E140

Chlorophyll

Color

Halal if use 100% powder or Halal if water or vegetable oil was used as a solvent

E141

Copper Complex of Chlorophyll

Color

Halal if use 100% powder or Halal if water or vegetable oil was used as a solvent

E142

Green S / Acid Brilliant Green BS

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal

E150(a-d)

Caramel Color/with chemicals

Color

Halal

E151

Black PN / Brilliant Black BN

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal

E153

Carbon Black / Vegetable Carbon (Charcoal)

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal

E160a

Alpha, Beta, Gamma

Color - Carotene

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal  

E160b

Annatto, Bixin, Norbixin

Color - Carotene

Halal

E160c

Capsanthin / Capsorbin

Color- Carotene

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal  

E160d

Lycopene

Color - Carotene

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal

E160e

Beta-apo-8-carotenal

Color - Carotene

Halal if used as 100% dry powder or granular or Halal if vegetable oil is used as a solvent in liquid form as a hidden ingredient. Haraam if pork gelatin is used as hidden ingredient or carrier

E160f

Ethyl ester of Beta-apo-8-cartonoic acid

Color - Carotene

Halal if used as 100% dry powder or granular or Halal if vegetable oil is used as a solvent in liquid form as a hidden ingredient. Haraam if pork gelatin is used as hidden ingredient or carrier  

E161a

Flavoxanthin

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal  

E161b

Lutein

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry powder or granular. Haraam if pork gelatin or pork glycerin is added in dry or liquid form

E161c

Cryptoxanthin

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal  

E161d

Rubixanthin

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal  

E161e

Violaxanthin

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal  

E161f

Rhodoxanthin

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal  

E161g

Canthaxanthin

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal  

E162

Beetroot Red / Betanin

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal    

E163

Anthocyanins

Color

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal  

E170

Calcium Carbonate (Chalk)

Color - Inorganic

Halal if obtained from rock mineral and used as 100% dry powder or granular. Mushbooh if used as liquid, solvent has to be Halal

E171

Titanium Dioxide

Color - Inorganic

 Halal

E172

Iron Oxides and Hydroxides

Color - Inorganic

 Halal

E173

Aluminium

Color - Inorganic

 Halal

E174

Silver

Color - Inorganic

 Halal

E175

Gold

Color - Inorganic

 Halal 

E180

Pigment Rubine / Lithol Rubine BK

Color - Inorganic

Halal if used as 100% dry color. Mushbooh if used as liquid color, the solvent has to be Halal    

E200

Sorbic Acid

Preservative

 Halal

E201

Soduim Sorbate

Preservative

 Halal

E202

Potassium Sorbate

Preservative

 Halal

E203

Calcium Sorbate

Preservative

 Halal

E210

Benzoic Acid

Preservative

 Halal

E211

Sodium Benzoate

Preservative

 Halal

E212

Potassium Benzoate

Preservative

 Halal

E213

Calcium Benzoate

Preservative

 Halal, if calcium obtained from mineral, Mushbooh if it is obtained from bones.

E214

Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate

Preservative

Halal, if used as 100% dry powder or granular. Haraam if alcohol is used as a solvent

E215

Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, Sodium Salt

Preservative

Halal, if used as 100% dry powder or granular. Haraam if alcohol is used as a solvent

E216

Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate

Preservative

Halal, if used as 100% dry powder or granular. Haraam if alcohol is used as a solvent

E217

Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, Sodium Salt

Preservative

Halal, if used as 100% dry powder or granular. Haraam if alcohol is used as a solvent

E218

Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate

Preservative

Halal, if used as 100% dry powder or granular. Haraam if alcohol is used as a solvent

E219

Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, Sodium Salt

Preservative

Halal, if used as 100% dry powder or granular. Haraam if alcohol is used as a solvent

E220

Sulphur Dioxide

Preservative

 Halal

E221

Sodium Sulphite

Preservative

 Halal

E222

Sodium Hydrogen Sulphite

Preservative

 Halal

E223

Sodium Metabisulphite

Preservative

 Halal

E224

Potassium Metabisulphite

Preservative

 Halal

E226

Calcium Sulphite

Preservative

 Halal

E227

Calcium Hydrogen Sulphite

Preservative

 Halal, if calcium is obtained from mineral or chemicals. Mushbooh if it is obtained from bones.

E230

Biphenyl / Diphenyl

Preservative

Halal, if no alcohol is used as a solvent

E231

2-Hydroxybiphenyl

Preservative

Halal, if no alcohol is used as a solvent

E232

Sodium Biphenyl-2-yl Oxide

Preservative

Halal, if no alcohol is used as a solvent

E233

2-(Thiazol-4-yl) Benzimidazole

Preservative

Halal, if no alcohol is used as a solvent

E239

Hexamine

Preservative - other

 Halal

E249

Potassium Nitrate

Preservative

 Halal

E250

Sodium Nitrite

Preservative

 Halal

E251

Sodium Nitrate

Preservative

 Halal

E252

Potassium Nitrate(Saltpetre)

Preservative

 Halal

E260

Acetic Acid

Miscellaneous - Acids

 Halal

E261

Potassium Acetate

Miscellaneous - Acids

 Halal

E262

Potassium Hydrogen Diacetate

Miscellaneous - Acids

 Halal

E263

Calcium Acetate

Miscellaneous - Acids

 Halal

E270

Lactic Acid

Miscellaneous - Acids

 Halal if obtained other than whey. In USA it is always from non dairy source.

E280

Propionic Acid

Preservative - Acids

 Halal

E281

Sodium Propionate

Preservative- Acids

 Halal

E282

Calcium Propionate

Preservative- Acids

 Halal if calcium obtained from mineral, Mushbooh if it obtained from bones

E283

Potassium Propionate

Preservative- Acids

 Halal

E290

Carbon Dioxide

Miscellaneous

 Halal